Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is seen in 23 percent of the population, with half of these people suffering with a recurrence of RAS within three months. The Greek term “aphthai,” credited to Hippocrates, was first used to describe oral disorders. RAS is idiopathic in nature, with local trauma and stress being the most likely precipitating factors. Many treatments have been suggested including herbs, multivitamins, adhesive pastes, local antiseptics, local and systemic antibiotics, topical NSAIDs, topical and systemic corticosteroids and immunosuppressants. Vitamin B12 has been shown to provide both immediate and long-term benefits for the treatment and control of RAS.